A sprinkler system is basically an active fire protection system, consisting mainly of a water supply unit, capable of supplying adequate flow and pressure to a fire water supply pipe system, on which multiple fire sprinklers are attached. Fire sprinklers can either be built into the structure of the building, or installed as a separate system. In the former case, installation is usually simpler, as it can be located in convenient places within the building. This kind of sprinkler system can also save costs related to reinstalling pipes and connecting them again, as they are more difficult to dislodge and install. On the other hand, separate fire sprinkler systems are installed in more difficult and dangerous situations, where professional help is needed.
Sprinkler systems are classified according to their principle of operation. The three basic types of sprinkler systems are the dry pipe system, the wet pipe system and the hybrid combination of the two systems. Each type of sprinkler system has its own benefits and limitations. The following sections provide information regarding each type:
Dry Pipe Sprinkler: The dry-type sprinkler includes a main supply and two rotating nozzles, which spray water only when the nozzles strike the surface of the soil. This type of system has the minimum area of coverage and is suitable for small to medium-sized rural areas and for irrigation of very small lawns. Modern methods and advanced technology allow the application of alternate nozzles in combination with the main irrigation pipe, to direct the discharge of water at different locations.
Pump Unit Sprinkler irrigation system consists of three parts: the main pump, the submersible pump assembly, and the connection unit. The main pump controls the rate of water flow and delivers water to the mainlines, while the submersible pump assembly directs the water to the outlets on the lawn. The connection unit connects the mainlines to the individual nozzles and connects the laterals to the mainlines. These units are available in different configurations, depending on the type of system and the irrigation fields.
PVC Pipes: The PVC pipes, or polyvinyl chloride, are considered economical and have a long service life. They are widely used in residential and commercial irrigation systems due to their low maintenance and durability. PVC pipes are available in different widths and heights to meet the needs of different customers.
Crimp Ring and Nylon Pipe Thumb: The crimp ring is a special type of barb fitting that is used in conjunction with the PVC pipes. It can prevent leakages in the case of serious water pressure that is not controlled by the main switch. The PVC pipe, or polyvinyl chloride, is able to withstand extremely high pressures. This makes it ideal for underground construction and other situations where the probability of leakage is higher. The PVC pipe can also be used to carry large quantities of water in large volumes, without the risk of water seepage.
Sprinkler Drain Pipe Sets: The drain pipe of the sprinkler irrigation system layout is placed inside the ground. This set is typically made from iron, copper, steel, vinyl, plastic, polyvinyl chloride, and brass. It is essential for the drainage of the water that runs through the system. However, the set needs to be carefully set, and it can lead to leaks if not done properly. A standard PVC set has a hexagon design to ensure that the set fits securely into the soil, and the set is available in different lengths.
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Sump Pump Sets: The sump pump is another integral component of the system. These are available in two different types: the direct draw and the pull down models. The advantage of the pull down model is that it pulls the water out of the soil, while the direct draw pumps are installed beneath the ground. The main advantage of the direct draw system is that it removes a lot of water, but this can lead to the loss of water in case of clogs. The drain fitting in the bottom of the sewer line connects to the tap, while the merle henkenius pipes are located on top of the sewer drain.